Why was Aaron the one that made the golden calf? If he had been alongside Moses the whole time, and seen all that YHWH had done for them, why was he so quick to abandon YHWH and make another idol god for the Israelites and then even built an altar in front of it? Why declare a festival to YHWH the following day?

Aaron is only Moses’ brother in P, and E is the writer credited with the Golden calf story. If you’re pro-Moses and Anti-Aaron, this story could make Aaron look bad. Other versions of the story, such as the one in the Quran, blame this incident on someone else, so some think it’s an incident that got blamed on Aaron later. On the other hand, ancient worship of El, Baal, and Yahweh was originally accompanied by bull statues, though Deuteronomy later forbade that. So this scrap of the story might be a holdover from an earlier time, or it could be an attempt to explain the existence of bull statues in the temple, where we know Baal and Asherah were also worshipped as late as the time of Josiah. Here’s’ a Wikipedia article on Yahweh and bull worship: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahweh. There are a bunch of other theories about this; the Wikipedia article on the golden calf summarizes them well: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_calf

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