Why do Jewish people think that Jesus was not the Messiah? Who do they think is the Messiah?

Here’s a partial answer to your question: The Jews believe the “messiah” (no capital) is a human, not a god. Though Davidic kings were called “sons of God,” this title was probably more figurative than literal. “Messiah” or anointed is the Aramaic word for king. The true Jewish messiah will be someone from the line of David who restores the Jews to their homeland (Israel), rebuilds the temple, and makes them a military power of the size attributed to David at the height of his powers. One could argue that two of the three have happened, but the temple cannot be rebuilt because there is an important mosque on it. Other people thought at the time (the intertestamental period) to be “messiah” were military leaders: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jewish_messiah_claimants

But the Jewish messiah is also supposed to usher in the messianic age, the age in which the dead are restored (modern Jewish people generally do not believe in a heaven right now but many do anticipate an afterlife at that time). Since the messianic age has not occurred, previous claimants to messiah are not the correct ones.

In the late first century, the rabbinical Jews split with the Jewish and pagan followers of Jesus over several practices. For example, the drinking of Jesus’s blood, whether real or symbolic, was anathema to Jewish people. (As you may know, early Christians believed in something later called “transubstantiation,” through which the “blood of the grape” and “bread” become the blood and body of God. Modern Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians still hold this belief. While Protestants reject it, it was and is considered an important “mystery” by which humans can participate in divinity). First-century CE Jews also rejected Jesus’s claim to messiahship. For one thing, his crucifixion on the cross makes him “cursed” in Deuteronomy 21. To the Jews, he did not fulfill any of the prophecies a messianic figure should fulfill. Moreover, Jews believe in one God and reject the notion that a man, even the messiah, can share God’s divinity (I refer to questions of the trinity, which became Christian doctrine in the early middle ages.)

Followers of Islam also agree with Jews that Jesus as a teacher (rabbi), but reject notions of his divinity. Like Judaism, Islam is aniconic, and for them God does not take human form.

I stress that the Christians radically redefined what “messiah” meant; the Aramaic term had none of the divine and transcendental associations of the Christian concept. Early Christians used the Greek translation of “messiah,” which was “christos.” Paul was a Pharisee and a student of pagan mystery cults like Mithraism, Christianity’s largest competitor in this period. He first articulated in writing–at least, writing that still exists–the idea that Jesus was both divine and human. In doing so, he combined several aspects of both Judaism and mystery cults, which were secret groups by which people used baptism and ritual meals and practices to unite with the divine and live eternally. The earliest gospel, Mark, written after Paul’s writings, hints that Jesus was the messiah, though the original text did not mention a resurrection, just an empty tomb. Gospels after Mark also articulated Jesus’s divinity, especially the gospel of John, written after the Jesus movement members had been expelled from Jewish synagogues. And so Christians began to associate “messiah” or “christos” with divinity, not just humanity.

For more, the Wikipedia page on this question is also not bad: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judaism%27s_view_of_Jesus#:~:text=The%20belief%20that%20Jesus%20is,the%20coming%20of%20the%20messiah.

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